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Microbiology 21

A 33-year-old man presents to the emergency department with a 3-week history of cough with hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss. He immigrated from Africa 4 months ago and reports no known past medical history. Gram stain of the sputum is performed and reveals normal oral flora. Chest x-ray reveals cavitary lesions in the upper lobes of each lung.

Which of the following properties of the upper lobes contributes to its seeding by the organism infecting this patient?

  • A) Decreased immune response in the upper lobes
  • B) Increased perfusion in the upper lobes
  • C) Increased TNF-alpha signaling in the upper lobes
  • D) Increased V/Q ratio in the upper lobes
  • E) Sulfatide glycolipid homing to the upper lobes


Austinn Miller


Dr. Ted O'Connell

Last updated

Feb 20, 2023


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