Step 2

Neurology 8

An 88-year-old woman presents with her son to her primary care physician for evaluation of confusion. Her son reports that she has had a progressive worsening of memory over the last year as well as increased falling. Past medical history is significant for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus and she has not had any recent changes to medications. Memory testing reveals deficits in short-term memory and executive functioning. Physical examination reveals that when she walks, she moves slowly, takes small steps, and has a wide base. MRI of the brain is significant for ventricular enlargement out of proportion to cerebral atrophy.

Which of the following additional features is most likely present in this patient?

  • A) History of personality changes preceding memory changes
  • B) History of stepwise decline in cognitive functioning
  • C) Sensitivity to antipsychotics
  • D) Urinary incontinence
  • E) Visual hallucinations


Alexandra Conway


Dr. Ted O'Connell