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Physiology 4

A 23-year-old man presents to the clinic with chest pain and dyspnea on exertion for the past several weeks. Past medical history is negative, and he does not take any mmedications. He does report that similar symptoms are common in his family. He denies smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol. Vital signs are within normal limits. Physical examination reveals a crescendo-decrescendo murmur heard at the base of the heart during systole. Which of the following underlying conditions predisposes the patient to these symptoms?
  • A) Bicuspid aortic valve
  • B) Down syndrome
  • C) Edward syndrome
  • D) Marfan syndrome
  • E) Patent ductus arteriosus


Lujain Albozeyah


Dr. Ted O'Connell