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Pathology 9

A 28-year-old woman presents to the clinic with complaints of dysuria and urinary frequency for the past two days. She came today after noticing a small amount of blood in her urine. She recently returned from her honeymoon in Costa Rica. She uses topical corticosteroids for eczema on her arms. Family history is unremarkable. Vital signs are normal. Physical examination reveals suprapubic tenderness to palpation and no costovertebral angle tenderness. Urine dipstick shows positive leukocytes and nitrites, and an antibiotic is prescribed. Urine culture returns two days later and is positive for a motile gram-negative bacteria.

If this patient developed systemic infection with the most likely causative agent, which of the following is the toxic component of this causative agent?

  • A) DNA
  • B) Lipopolysaccharide
  • C) Nitrate reductase
  • D) Pili
  • E) RNA


Robert Li


Dr. Ted O'Connell

Last updated

Oct 12, 2022

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